VIII. THE VILLAIN CAUSES HARM OR INJURY TO A MEMBER OF A FAMILY:

 villainy 


**This function is exceptionally important, since by means of it the actual movement of the tale is created. Absentation, the violation of an interdiction, delivery, the success of a deceit, all prepare the way for this function, create its possibility of occurrence, or simply facilitate its happening. Therefore, the first seven functions may be regarded as the preparatory part of the tale, whereas the complication is begun by an act of villainy. The forms of villainy are exceedingly varied.


1.The villain abducts a person. A dragon kidnaps the tsar's daughter, a peasant's daughter; a witch kidnaps a boy; older brothers abduct the bride of a younger brother. 


2. The villain seizes or takes away a magical agent. The "uncomely chap" seizes a magic coffer; a princess seizes a magic shirt; the finger-sized peasant makes off with a magic steed.


2a. The forcible seizure of a magical helper creates a special subclass of this form. A stepmother orders the killing of a miraculous cow. A clerk orders the slaying of a magic duck or chicken.


3. The villain pillages or spoils the crops. A mare eats up a haystack. A bear steals the oats. A crane steals the peas.


4. The villain seizes the daylight. This occurs only once.


5. The villain plunders in other forms. The object of seizure fluctuates to an enormous degree, and there is no need to register all of its forms. The object of plunder as will be apparent later on, does not influence the course of action. Logically, it would generally be more correct to consider all seizure as one form of villainy, and all constituent forms of seizure (subdivided according to their objects) not as classes, but as sub-classes. Nevertheless, it is technically more useful to isolate several of its most important forms, and generalize the remainder. Examples: a firebird steals the golden apples; a weasel-beast each night eats animals from the tsar's menagerie; the general seizes the king's (non-magical) sword; and so forth. 


6. The villain causes bodily injury. A servant girl cuts out the eyes of her mistress. A princess chops off Katoma's legs. It is interesting that these forms (from a morphological point of view) are also forms of seizure. The eyes, for example, are placed by the servant girl in a pocket and are carried away; thus they are consequently acquired in the same manner as other seized objects and are put in their proper place. The same is true for a heart that has been cut out. 


7. The villain causes a sudden disappearance. Usually this disappearance is the result of the application of bewitching or deceitful means; a stepmother puts her stepson into a sleep-his bride disappears forever. Sisters place knives and needles in a maiden's window through which Finn is supposed to fly in-he injures his wings and disappears forever. A wife flies away from her husband upon a magic carpet.  A husband burns the (outer) skin of his bewitched wife, and she disappears forever. A bewitched kiss causes a prince to completely forget his bride. In this case the victim is the bride, who loses her betrothed.


8. The villain demands or entices his victim. Usually this form is the result of a deceitful agreement. The king of the sea demands the tsar's son, and he leaves home.


9.The villain expels someone: A stepmother drives her stepdaughter out; a priest expels his grandson.


10. The villain orders someone to be thrown into the sea. A tsar places his daughter and son-in-law in a barrel and orders the barrel to be thrown into the sea. Parents launch a small boat, carrying their sleeping son, into the sea.


11. The villain casts a spell upon someone or something. At this point one should note that the villain often causes two or three harmful acts at once. There are forms which are rarely encountered independently and which show a propensity for uniting with other forms. The casting of spells belongs to this group. A wife turns her husband into a dog and then drives him out; a stepmother turns her stepdaughter into a lynx and drives her out. Even in instances when a bride is changed into a duck and flies away, we actually have a case of expulsion, although it is not mentioned as such.


12. The villain effects a substitution. This form also is mostly concomitant. A nursemaid changes a bride into a duckling and substitutes her own daughter in the bride's place. A maid blinds the tsar's bride and poses as the bride. 


13. The villain orders a murder to be committed. This form is in essence a modified (intensified) expulsion: the stepmother orders a servant to kill her stepdaughter while they are out walking. A princess orders her servants to take her husband away into the forest and kill him. Usually in such instances a presentation of the heart and liver of the victim is demanded.


14.The villain commits murder. This also is usually only an accompanying form for other acts of villainy, serving to intensify them. A princess seizes her husband's magic shirt and then kills him. Elder brothers kill a younger brother and abduct his bride. A sister takes away her brother's berries and then kills him.


15. The villain imprisons or detains someone. The princess imprisons Ivan in a dungeon. The king of the sea incarcerates Semeon.


16. The villain threatens forced matrimony. A dragon demands the tsar's daughter as his wife. 


16a. The same form among relatives. A brother demands his sister for a wife. 


17. The villain makes a threat of cannibalism. A dragon demands the tsar's daughter for his dinner. A dragon has devoured all the people in the village, and the last living peasant is threatened with the same fate.


17a. The same form among relatives. A sister intends to devour her brother. 


18. The villain torments at night. A dragon or a devil torments a princess at night; a witch flies to a maiden and sucks at her breast. 


19. The villain declares war. A neighboring tsar declares war; similarly, a dragon ravages kingdoms.