1 A new appearance is directly effected by means of the magical action of a helper. The hero passes through the ears of a horse (or cow) and receives a new, handsome appearance.

2. The hero builds a marvelous palace. He resides in the palace himself as the prince. A maiden suddenly awakens during the night in a marvelous palace. Although the hero is not always transformed in these instances, he nevertheless does undergo a change in personal appearance.

3. The hero puts on new garments. A girl puts on a (magical?) dress and ornaments and suddenly is endowed with a radiant beauty at which everyone marvels.

4. Rationalized and humorous forms. These forms are partly explained by those preceding (as their transformations), and, in part, must be studied and explained in connection with the study of tale-anecdotes, whence they originate. Actual changes of appearance do not take place in these cases, but a new appearance is achieved by deception. For example, a fox leads Kzinka to a king saying that Kzinka fell into a ditch and requests clothes. The fox is given royal garments. Kzinka appears in the royal attire and is taken for a tsar's son. All similar instances may be formulated in the following manner: false evidence of wealth and beauty is accepted as true evidence.