XXII. RESCUE OF THE HERO FROM PURSUIT: 

rescue


1. He is carried away through the air (sometimes he is saved by lightning-fast fleeing). The hero flies away on a horse, on geese.


2. The hero flees, placing obstacles in the path of his pursuer. He throws a brush, a comb, a towel. They turn into mountains, forests, lakes. Similarly, (Mountain-Turner) and (OakTurner) tear up mountains and oak trees, placing them in the path of the she-dragon.


3. The hero, while in flight, changes into objects which make him unrecognizable. A princess turns herself and the prince into a well and dipper, a church and priest.


4. The hero hides himself during his flight. A river, an apple tree, and a stove hide a maiden. 


5. The hero is hidden by blacksmiths. A she dragon demands the guilty person. Ivan has hidden with blacksmiths, and they seize the dragon by the tongue and beat her with their hammers. Devils are placed in a knapsack by a soldier, are carried to a smithy and beaten with heavy hammers. 


6. The hero saves himself while in flight by means of rapid transformations into animals, stones, etc. The hero flees in the form of a horse, a ring, a seed, a falcon. The actual transformation is essential to this form. Flight may sometimes be omitted; such forms may be considered as a special subclass. A maiden is killed and a garden springs forth from her remains. The garden is cut down, it turns to stone, etc. 


7. He avoids the temptations of transformed she-dragons. Ivan hacks at the garden, the well, and so forth; blood flows from them. 


8. He does not allow himself to be devoured. Ivan jumps his horse over the she-dragon's jaws. He recognizes the lioness as the she-dragon and kills her. 


9. He is saved from an attempt on his life. Animals extract the dead tooth from his head in the nick of time.


10. He jumps to another tree.


**A great many tales end on the note of rescue from pursuit. The hero arrives home and then, if he has obtained a girl, marries her, etc. Nevertheless, this is far from always being the case. A tale may have another misfortune in store for the hero: a villain may appear once again, may seize whatever Ivan has obtained, may kill Ivan, etc. In a word, an initial villainy is repeated, sometimes in the same forms as in the beginning, and sometimes in other forms which are new for a given tale. With this a new story commences. There are no specific forms of repeated villainies (i.e., we again have abduction, enchantment, murder, etc.), but there are specific villains connected with the new misfortune. They are Ivan's elder brothers. Shortly after his arrival home they steal his prize and sometimes kill even him; if they permit him to remain alive then, in order to instigate a new search, it is necessary once more to place a great spatial barrier between the hero and the object being sought. This is accomplished by their throwing him into a chasm (into a pit, a subterranean kingdom, or sometimes into the sea), into which he may sometimes fall for three whole days. Then everything begins anew: i.e., again an accidental meeting with a donor; a successfully completed ordeal or service rendered, etc.; a receipt of a magical agent and its employment to return the hero home to his own kingdom. From this moment on the development is different from that in the beginning of the tale; we shall consider it below.


**This phenomenon attests to the fact that many tales are composed of two series of functions which may be labeled "moves." A new villainous act creates a new "move," and in this manner, sometimes a whole series of tales combine into a single tale. Nevertheless, the process of development which will be described below does constitute the continuation of a given tale, although it also creates a new move. In connection with this, one must eventually ask how to distinguish the number of tales in each text.