XIX  THE INITIAL MISFORTUNE OR LACK IS LIQUIDATED: 

liquidation


**This function, together with villainy, constitutes a pair. The narrative reaches its peak in this function.


1. The object of a search is seized by the use of force or cleverness. Here heroes sometimes employ the same means adopted by villains for the initial seizure. Ivan's steed turns into a beggar who goes seeking alms. The princess gives them. Ivan runs out of the bushes; they seize her and carry her away. 


la. Sometimes the capture is accomplished by two personages, one of whom orders the other to perform the actual business of catching. A horse steps on a crawfish and orders it to bring him a bridal dress. A cat catches a mouse and orders it to fetch a little ring. 


2. The object of search is obtained by several personages at once, through a rapid interchange of their actions. The distribution of action is evoked by a series of consecutive failures or attempts on the part of the abducted person to escape. The seven Semjons obtain a princess: the thief kidnaps her, but she flies away in the form of a swan; the archer shoots her down, and another one, in place of a dog, retrieves her from the water, etc. Similarly, the egg containing Kogja's death is obtained. A hare, a duck, and a fish run away, fly away, and swim away with the egg. A wolf, a raven, and a fish obtain it.


3. The object of search is obtained with the help of enticements. The hero lures the princess on board a ship with the aid of golden objects and carries her away. A special subclass might be made out of an enticement in the form of a proposal for an exchange. A blinded girl embroiders a wonderful crown and sends it to her villainous servant girl. In exchange for the crown the latter returns the eyes, which are thus retrieved.


4. The object of a quest is obtained as the direct result of preceding actions. If, for example, Ivan kills a dragon and later marries the princess whom he has freed, there is no obtaining as a special act; rather, there is obtaining as a function, as a stage in the development of the plot. The princess is neither seized nor abducted, but she is nevertheless "obtained." She is obtained as the result of combat. Obtaining in these cases is a logical element. It may also be accomplished as a result of acts other than battles. Thus Ivan can find a princess as the result of making a guided journey.


5. The object of search is obtained instantly through the use of a magical agent. Two young men (appearing out of a magical book) deliver a golden-horned stag with the speed of a whirlwind. 


6. The use of a magical agent overcomes poverty. A magic duck lays golden eggs. The magic tablecloth which sets itself and the horse that scatters gold both belong here. Another form of the self-setting tablecloth appears in the image of a pike: "By the pike's command and God's blessing let the table be set and the dinner ready."


7. The object of search is caught. This form is typical for agrarian pillage. The hero catches a mare which was stealing hay. He captures the crane which was stealing peas. 


8. The spell on a person is broken. This form is typical for All (enchantment). The breaking of a spell takes place either by burning the hide or by means of a formula: "Be a girl once again."


9. A slain person is revived. A hairpin or a dead tooth is removed from a head. The hero is sprinkled with deadening and life-giving waters. 


9a. Just as in the case of reverse capture one animal forces another to act, here also a wolf catches a raven and forces its mother to bring some deadening water and some life-giving water. This means of revival, preceded by the obtaining of water, may be singled out as a special subclass.


10. A captive is freed. A horse breaks open the doors of a dungeon and frees Ivan. This form, morphologically speaking, has nothing in common, for example, with the freeing of a forest spirit, since in the latter case a basis for gratitude and for the giving of a magical agent is created. Here initial misfortune is done away with. The king of the sea always drags his prisoner out onto the shore at midnight. The hero beseeches the sun to free him. The sun is late on two occasions. On the third occasion "the sun shone forth its rays and the king of the sea could no longer drag him back into bondage."


11. The receipt of an object of search is sometimes accomplished by means of the same forms as the receipt of a magical agent (i.e., it is given as a gift, its location is indicated, it is purchased, etc.).